Cool ovens generally turnout cakes which are flat on top and show excess shrinkage around the circumference, Cakes are often tender.
Cakes at higher temp show peaking with cracks center, more holes tunnels and crumbling or could be tough and low in volume.
Volume too Low : Insufficient leavening agents, batter allowed to be near high temperature, under mixing, excessively high oven temperature, improper balance of ingredients or improper ingredients type especially related to flour and fat.
Defects of Texture : Gumminess, chewiness or doughiness are usually because of lower baking temperature , under baking, or improper cooling before packaging, Water and fat contents to be balanced for the recipe.
Toughness : Extra strong flour, , over baking , inadequate water, over mixing , improper or inadequate fat,, improper size of pan for the amount of batter.
Defects of Spotted Crust : under mixed batter and change in mixing sequence or excessive oven heat, spotted crust due to bubbles are due to unsuitable leavening agents.
Bursting of the Crust : High baking temperature, over mixing , excess flour in the recipe, strong flour.
Pale Crust : Under baking, Low baking temperature, imbalance in heating and distribution of heat.
Dark Crust : Very high baking temperature, excessive sugar.
Coarse or Irregular Grain : Large holes and tunnels at the bottom of the cake due to excessive bottom heat, insufficient heat causing excessive opening of grains, wet streaks due to under baking, , un dissolved spots due to under mixing, under mixing and over mixing, close grain due to over mixing.