1. Coarse texture : Proofing at higher temperature, lower baking temperature, pan too large, mixing temperature high, dough chilled at some stage, too much pan proof, inadequate degassing during rounding or molding.
2. Streaks or hard spots : Excess of dusting flour, crust formation before molding, inadequate humidity during proofing, unclean machinery, lumps formed due to wetting.
3. Holes in Bread : Formation of tunnels : soft dough, excess dusting flour, dough not compressed enough during rounding, excessive expansion during pan proof.
4. Dark or dull crumb Color : over fermented dough, dough too wet, young dough, dough too warm out of mixer, unclean machinery, crusting of dough during fermentation.
Defects of Volume :
1. Inadequate Volume : inadequate pan proof, too low temperature during pan proof, cold baking pan, excess of salt, excessive baking temperature in early stages, pans too large, poor handling rounding and molding, sugar inadequate or consumed during fermentation, unequal dividing.
2. Volume too large : Check for unequal dividing, flour strong, oven too cold, over fermented dough.
Defects of Odor or taste :
Contamination or microbiological activity, storage in high temperature ,yeast is spoilt, error in weighing of ingredients, usage of unsuitable scrap material, too much or little fermentation.
Defects in shelf Life :
Inadequate or wrong packaging, change in bread making parameter or packaging parameter, change in formulation or use of ingredients, packaging of warm bread.
Yeast Leavened Sweet Dough :
1. Volume too low : Under mixed, not fermented enough, piece too small, improper roll in, dough too cold, oven too hot.
2. Coarse grain : under or over mixed, not fermented enough, excess dusting flour, fermented or proofed too long or at higher temperature, pan size large, excess steam in the proof box, improper roll in.
3. Off taste or off Odor : Poor quality ingredients, contamination, dough fermented or proofed too long at high temperature, unwashed pans.
4. Texture : Under mixing, not fermented long enough, insufficient pan proof, dough too cold, baked too long or temperature too high for piece size, excessive softeners.
5. Stales quickly : Lean formulas, inadequate water, dried out dough, cold dough, excessive fermentation or proof, overbooked, excessive dusting flour.